What Is Yellow Fever...?

Symptoms of yellow fever


For most people, yellow fever causes mild illness or is not felt. Exposure to the virus and getting sick from mosquito bites usually takes about three to six days. If you have a mild illness and never get sick, you are expected to fully recover. However, for some people, jaundice causes fever, colds, pain, bleeding, yellowing of the eyes and skin, nausea, vomiting, confusion, shock, and even organ failure.
For people who experience yellow fever symptoms, there are three stages of the disease:

Early infections: occur three to six days after exposure. You may experience fever, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and fatigue.

Remission : Removal takes place after a few hours, up to a day. Fever, if any, drops and symptoms improve. This can last from 24 to 48 hours. Many people recover at this point. About 15% of people infected with the virus develop a more serious illness

Severe disease: If you suffer from a serious illness, fever, nausea and vomiting may occur. In severe infections, new symptoms and signs appear: 1

  • Jaundice: Most people with severe illness experience yellowing of the skin (including the hands and arms), whites of the eyes, and the skin under the tongue. This symptom gives yellow fever its name.
  • Some people start having bruises easily or bleeding from various parts of the body. In particular, you may notice bleeding from your nose, other mucous membranes, or an internal area, or you may see blood in your vomit.
  • White blood cell count may be low, which means that the number of immune cells is low during an infection.
  • Blood tests can show that the liver is damaged and that it can detect high levels of liver enzymes in the blood. This can happen before jaundice occurs.
  • If the infection progresses, liver enzymes are expected to rise to the second week of disease and return to normal.
  • Healers develop antibodies that fight the virus when it disappears. The virus stays in the blood longer in people who are very sick.
  • A serious illness can cause symptoms of confusion and eventually organ failure.

Management Treatment

There is no specific antiviral treatment for yellow fever. However, the disease can be quite severe and the associated complications require medical treatment.
This may include:


v  Prevention of bleeding: Actions such as aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen should generally be avoided because of the risk of bleeding.

v  Hydration: Maintaining hydration throughout the course of the disease with oral or IV fluid may be necessary, especially if you experience vomiting or low blood pressure.

v  Fever control: Yellow fever is usually associated with low-grade fever. But if your fever is higher than expected, you may need medication to lower your temperature.

v  Pain: If you experience muscle pain or general discomfort, it can be controlled by oral or inject able painkillers.


v  Blood Pressure Support: In people who are traumatized when their blood pressure is extremely low, blood pressure can be raised with actions that block blood vessels.

v  Management of organ failure: When the organs fail due to jaundice, the infection progresses and those organs need support. For example, a ventilator may be needed to help with breathing; Dialysis may be needed for the kidneys to work.



Diagnosis

Diagnosis of yellow fever is based on the clinical history of exposure to an endemic mosquito bite as well as the history of symptoms. There are several tests that can help or confirm the diagnosis of yellow fever

Ø  Antibody test: This test is the best confirmed diagnostic test for yellow fever. It detects the presence of immune proteins for yellow fever in your blood, indicating that you are fighting or effectively fighting the infection. However, it will take a few days for your body to produce enough antibodies. You may have to wait up to two weeks to get your results.

Ø  Viral PCR test: PCR tests can detect the genetic material of the virus in your blood. A positive PCR test shows that your body has the virus, so it is considered a more powerful indicator of current infection than an antibody test. Important limitation: viral RNA can be detected after infection but not easily detected a few days after infection. This means that even if you have an infection, you can still get a PCR test result.

Ø  Urine test: A relatively new test can detect viral PCR in the urine and make the diagnosis more practical. However, this test was promised and is not yet widely used.

Not; Between 20% and 50% of people with serious illness can die

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