Problems of Common Foot and Foot Structure

Your feet are made for walking and running, jumping, balancing, climbing and much more. So it is not surprising that human food is complex. Believe it or not, your size six (or nine or twelve) has 28 bones - about a quarter of your total body bones - with 30 joints and more than a hundred muscles, bones and tendons.

All of these structures work like well-designed machinery to perform two important functions: lifting and propulsion. These functions require high stability. Also, the base should be flexible so that it can adapt to uneven surfaces. This is one of the reasons why there are bones and joints in every foot.

Here is a brief overview of foot structures and how they work together, as well as some common ailments that can sometimes occur, such as normal wear, tearing, overuse or injury to the foot.

Foot structure

The foot can be divided into three parts: the forehead, the middle leg and the back foot. Each part has bones, joints, muscles, tendons and skeletal parts.

Management Bone

It can be divided into three parts depending on the location of the bones in the foot.

Front legs

This is the front part of the foot, including the toes or phalanges. There are 14 finger bones (two for the big toe and three for the other four), and five metatarsals.

The first metatarsal bone is short and est, and plays an important role during proximal (forward movement). It also provides attachment to several tendons. The second, third, and fourth metatarsals are the most stable of the metatarsals. They are well protected and have only minor tendon attachments.

In addition to the pharynx and metatarsals, the first metatarsal of the forehead contains two small, oval-shaped sessile bones below the head, on the plantar surface or under the foot. It is held in place by tendons and bone fragments. The tarsometercell (TMT) is found in the five joints at the middle of the forehead.


This part of the foot is made up of five irregularly shaped bones. The clinical names for these bones are naval, cuboidal, and medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform. Together they form the arch of the foot. The arch of the foot plays a major role in load bearing and stability.


This part of the foot has only two large bones: the thalamus and the calcaneus. The largest of these, the calcaneus, forms the heel of the foot. The thalamus rests on the top of the calcaneus and forms the turning joint of the ankle.


A joint is formed at the junction between two or more bones. Each big toe has two joints, the metatarsophalangeal joint and the intercostal joint. The other four toes of one foot have three joints each: the metatarsophalangeal joint (MCP) of the foot, the proximal interphalangeal joint in the middle of the toe (PIP) and the distal phalangeal joint (DP) - the joint.

Management Muscle

The muscles that control the movements of the foot start in the lower leg and are attached to the skeletal ligaments of the foot. The main muscles that facilitate the movement of the foot are:

  1. Tibialis post (supports the arch of the foot)
  2. Tibialis anterior (allows foot to move upwards)
  3. Tibialis peroneal (controls external movement of the ankle)
  4. Extender (Raise your fingers so that you can step)
  5. Flexors

Ligaments and ligaments

The most prominent part of the foot is the Achilles tendon, which runs from the calf muscles to the heel. It is the strongest and largest inclined structure of the body.  The Achilles tendon allows you to run, jump, climb stairs and stand on your toes.

Other important ligaments in the foot include the tibial posterior (posterior tibial tendon), which connects the calf muscles to the bones inside the foot and supports the arch of the foot. The outer tibia extends from the medial cuneiform tassel to the first metatarsal and dorsal axils, allowing for dosiflexion.

The basic skeletal parts of the foot are:

Plantar fascia: The longest ligament of the foot, the plantar fascia, runs from heel to toe to form the arch of the foot, providing strength for walking and assisting balance.
Plantar calcaneus vascular ligament: This is the ligament of the foot that connects the calcaneus and the navel and supports the thalamus head.
Calcanocuboid ligament: This is the bone that connects the calcaneus and the tarsal bone and supports the plantar fascia that supports the arch of the foot.

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